VC05_B03 Space, time key and colour

Objective:

The objective of this activity is to enhance your awareness of how the “point of view” changes the narrative and overall impact of the resulting image.

The Activity:

Take a series of photographs of the one object moving the camera in all axes: Up, down, left, right, forward and back, also changing pitch and yaw. This is a really simple exercise, but at the same time, very powerful. It will give you an appreciation how many different ways one simple object can be photographed and the dramatic differences the simple act of moving the camera can have on the resulting image. Be sure to get a wide range of images, trying to cover as many angles as possible. This is one of the most powerful but simple tools in a photographer’s arsenal. After experimenting with different angles on a particular subject you will gain an appreciation for what these angles do in regards to the impact and narrative of the final image. This exercise is designed so that you start thinking about how you approach a subject depending on your intended result. If you do not already, this act of walking around and looking at objects in as many angles as possible will become second nature.

Make a series of 6 jpeg exposures. Allow about 1 hour to complete this activity.

After completing this activity reflect on the differences from image to image and how the different angles change the narrative of the subject and then document these thoughts (one paragraph per image) on your blog.

Submission:

Post these images to your blog accompanied by the relevant commentary for assessment.

 

Please note, these images were taken in natural light on a day when the weather was constantly changing, consequently, the white balance does change a little, but as I feel this adds to the different moods, I have chosen not to equalise them in Camera Raw.

 

Image 1 

6

3/4 view from rear.  This view has a very calm, serene feel. A narrow depth of field has kept focus on the texture in the wings, and softened the face, adding to this mood.  Shooting from a low angle has put the cherub’s cheek as a secondary focal point.

 

11

 

 

Image 2

3/4 view, front facing.  Turning the subject 90 degrees has resulted in a lot more light reaching the face, with the wings being in shadow as well as slightly softer in focus.  Here the main texture focus is on the hair and the mood is a little more dramatic, with this view giving a sense of catching a napping cherub unawares.

 

10

 

Image 3

3/4 view from above, tilted angle. The light in this view enables a lot more detail to be placed on the cherub as a whole, the wings, while in focus, are noticeably darker due to the angle of light reflecting from them.  I feel this creates a more uplifting image, in that it gives a sense of energy, as if the cherub is about to wake up.

 

 

 

7

 

Image 4 – side view.  This is the only view in which the entire face is visible, and it easily draws the eye of the viewer.  The slight slant given by changing the angle of view lends a relaxed feel, although it also can mislead the view into thinking the cherub is ‘falling’ off the image.

 

3

 

Image 5

3/4 rear view.  This view was taken from the opposite side as the first 3/4 rear view, the face is totally obstructed, and combined with the focus on the texture on the wings, this leads to a very open interpretation.

 

2

Image 6

Top View

In this view, the focus shifts to the wings and the texture on them, and the expression on the cherub’s face is almost discernible.  This leaves the mood of the image to be interpreted by the viewer.  The sudden fall off of light on the shadow side adds to this openness.

 

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VC05_B04 Gestalt Portrait

Objective:

The objective of this activity is to enhance your ability to think outside the square and apply your imagination to your photography.

 

The Activity:

 

Gestalt Psychology is the field of study that is dedicated to human perception and explores the way we, as humans, see the world around us. We construct our thoughts by our previous experiences. An example of this is when we see faces on the surfaces of Mars. Our brain looks for things it recognises, so when we see an odd shaped mountain on Mars we instantly see it as a face. Giuseppe Arcimboldo used these theories in his paintings, constructing amazing portraits made up of fruit, vegetables and all sorts of other objects.  You need to construct and photograph a portrait that pays homage to Giuseppe Arcimboldo from related objects. Your selection of objects is completely up to you, only limited by your imagination, but as a group they must be related to each other. Some examples would be, nuts, bolts and screws or another group could be a collection of jelly babies, jelly beans, smarties , or buttons and reels of cotton, etc. The more you concentrate on the small details the more interesting your final image will be. For reference, have a look at Giuseppe Arcimboldo’s portraits and the intricate details he used to construct his paintings.

 

Allow about 1 hour to complete this activity (set up and photograph), this 1 hour does not take into account your preparation work, which in this activity is vital. The more thought and work you put into the preparation the easier the exercise will be, and will also have a direct reflection on the quality of the final image.

 

Submission:

Post the portrait into your blog accompanied by a 250-word commentary on the process and reflections on the final image.

 

Firstly, let me state that I am absolutely NOT Guiseppe Arcimboldo’s armpit.. I don’t look at an apple and see a rosy cheek, likewise a scallion doesn’t inspire me to think of eyebrows, so when I got this worksheet, I cried on the inside.

Thankfully, I have a good and dear friend called yahoo search, and by sheer willpower, lots of caffeine and the ability to re arrange keywords in a search engine, I found some images that weren’t fine art.  However, they were absolutely in the minority.  I never would have thought that creating the human likeness out of edible matter was so popular and that such intricate detail was possible.  Well, I wouldn’t be upsetting that apple cart, because I was absolutely not in their league.

Images such as the following were incredible to behold, but I knew I couldn’t create something that intricate, as I would be limited to what I could carry on a motorcycle.

Arranged Vegetables Creating a Face

 

However, a search through children’s activity ideas led to something that was much more my skill level and minimalist style.

foodface1

 

However, as previously mentioned, I would be transporting the materials by motorcycle in a satchel, and I really wanted to keep them easy to handle, especially considering I would have to move them around, and then handle my camera to record the image, also, I prefer my faces to be a slightly less bilious shade of green, so a trip to the supermarket was in order

By looking up and down the dry packaged groceries aisle, I managed to locate some materials that I thought would substitute for more realistic (and yet still stylised) skin tones, be easy to transport and handle, and not leave my hands a gooey, smelly mess at the end.

However, I wasn’t happy with the idea of an entire portrait made of dried goods, I felt that it was just a little lacking in texture, so I rethought some of the peripheral details, purchasing some fresh foods and some dried fruits and confectionary.  I giggled along with the checkout chick when we scanned my TWO single cherries.

Then came the big test, putting the idea in my head onto a hard surface.  This was a LOT easier once I had sat down and thought about what foods resembled body parts, or could be styled to do so.  While I didn’t go for Arcimboldo’s level of depth and detail, I was pleasantly surprised at how easily the various ingredients did come together to create something that was recogniseable as a face.

face

I named her Harriet, for no particular reason, her face is made of brown rice, her hair is an interesting pasta, her eyes are caster sugar, with licorice for eyeliner and sliced olives for pupils, dried chives form her shirt, walnuts her ears, apricot cheeks and her mouth is the top of a capsicum segment.

After finishing, which took nearly 4o minutes, I was pleasantly surprised to realise that I really had enjoyed the creative side of bringing Harriet to life, I had purchased ingredients that I didnt’ use, put other ingredients in positions that they were not originally intended for, and along the way, I had created something unique.  Thank you for the opportunity to look at things differently, not sure when I will do it again, but it will be a lot sooner than I expected when I was given this task.

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VC05_B02 Framing and rule of thirds

Objective:

The objective of this activity is to enhance your awareness of the “rule of thirds” in your photographic composition.

 The Activity:

 Take two photographs of the same subject, one following the rule of thirds and one that doesn’t. The rule of thirds is a very powerful and widely used compositional device and by photographing the same scene in this way you will gain a better understanding of how this rule influences the overall impact of the image. When framing your subject imagine that your frame is divided up into thirds both vertically and horizontally. When following the rule, align the subjects of the image along these grid lines and their four intersecting points.

Use these four intersecting points to place your subjects of interest. Experiment where you place your subject: you can follow the rule and still get dramatically different results simply by changing which intersecting points you decide to use. Think about what is important in the image and how you want it to be viewed and this will help you decide which intersecting points to use. It may be the direction your subject is facing, where they are going or where they have been. It may be the subject’s shadow, shape or surrounding elements that help you decide whether to place it in the upper left intersecting point or the lower right, for example. When taking the second image that does not follow the rule of thirds make sure that you completely break the rule. A good way to accomplish this is to place your subject in the direct centre, both vertically and horizontally. By making sure that you follow the rule with the first image and then completely break it with the next image you will have a far better appreciation of this rule and its advantages. As always, experiment. Take a number of images that follow the rule and a number that don’t of the same subject. By doing this, your review of the exercise will be far more beneficial in understanding its purpose.

Select the most successful pair of images, one that follows the rule and one that does not. Your images will then be loaded onto the computer and shared with the class.

Post these two images into your blog accompanied by a one-paragraph commentary of each image.

I approached this worksheet from the view of product photography for magazine or catalogue use, which I considered applicable to the subject I was photographing.  Image 1 is my ‘rule of thirds’ image, image 2 is my ‘direct centre’ image.  I DID process them slightly differently, in an attempt to give each image a different feel, as may be done in a commercial photography environment, consequently, they have different colour casts to them.

Image 1

 

thirds1

 

Aperture F2.8

Shutter speed 1/200

ISO100 @70mm

Studio flash used for lighting.

This image has been composed in camera with the intersection between the knob style lid and the bottle placed on the upper right intersecting line.  Visually, this isn’t a great image on it’s own, despite following the rule of thirds, it doesn’t appear to add much interest.

However, as a commercial image, it is much stronger, as there is now considerable negative space for the placement of text of one kind or another while still leaving the image intact.  I can see this placement being particularly useful in a catalogue cover, where the strong colour contrast would draw the eye to the product, and the darker background allowing white text to pop and be of interest to the viewer.

 

Image 2

thirds2

 

Aperture F2.8

Shutter speed 1/200

ISO100 @70mm

Studio flash used for lighting.

 

This image has the subject placed in the absolute centre of the image.. with the top and bottom of the subject being equidistant to the frame, as is the centre line of the subject.

Visually, this image is also pretty boring, there is nothing creative about a bottle in the middle of a page, and even the post production treatment of a slight vignette, a contrasting colour cast and a pop using levels hasn’t added any interest.  

Placing the subject in the centre has also reduced the likelihood of any accompanying text drawing the viewers eye, making it almost impossible to draw the viewer in to see more detail, consequently, this image has a lot less worth in the commercial world.

Furthermore, the landscape orientation of a portrait style object really grates against the viewer’s eye, leaving them wondering exactly what the point is.

 

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VC04_B01 Line and shape

Objective:

The objective of this activity is to enhance your awareness of the possibilities of using line and shape as design elements in your photographic composition to direct the viewer’s attention within the image.

 

The Activity:

 

In your local environment identify and photograph examples of lead line, L shape, V shape and diagonals as compositional devices.  Visual artists use these lines and shapes in many ways. These devices can be used to lead the viewer’s eye through the image past one or more intended subjects, leading onto a single focal point. This is especially true when it comes to the use of “lead lines”. Lead lines can be anything with a defined line that will lead the eye. Fences, edges of buildings, roads etc. can be used to lead the viewer’s eye. Essentially, you as the photographer are trying to influence the way your image is viewed: if you succeed in your intended composition your narrative will be that much more powerful. When looking for suitable subjects keep in mind what you want your viewer to see, where you want them to first look and the journey you want them to take. For example, a winding road leading up to a large oak tree: the oak tree is the intended subject that you want to be the main element of the image, but its surrounding environment can sometimes be as important, so you use the road to lead the viewer through the environment ending at the intended subject. Other shapes, including L, V and diagonals, can be used in similar ways, leading the viewer’s eye through the image in a deliberate way. By using these compositional devices you can turn an otherwise ordinary snapshot into something quite intriguing simply by influencing the way it is viewed. When you find suitable locations in which to test these compositional devices, make sure that you take more than just one image. Try out different angles, tilts, heights etc. so that you can review them at a later stage and gain a better understanding of what works and why.

Make a series of jpeg exposures. Allow about 1 hour to complete this activity.

Select the most successful image of each of the four compositional devices: lead line, L shape, V shape and diagonals. Your images will be loaded onto the computer and shared with the class.

Image 1 – Leading Line

leading-lines-2

Image 2 – L Shape Line

elline1

Image 3  V line

Vline-1

Image 4 – Diagonals

diagonal2

 

Well, this was a LOT of fun, Federation Square is a buzz of activity ALL the time, and a lot of it is students looking at many many things, students of all ages and studying all subjects, along with public performances, people relaxing, workmen, tourists, people on lunch breaks, there is just so much going on and every where you look, there are lines.. all sorts of lines.. tram lines running into the distance, the electrickery wires above are lines that criss cross infinite in their intricacy, the stairs, the flagpoles, the amazing architecture.. and then there’s the view FROM the square – oh my!  Talk about spoilt for choice!

 

Somehow I think I missed the best of the lines, but still, I had a LOT of fun, and I will revisit this project at a later date on my own time, just to see how my eye has developed.  So, without further ado, here are my mediocre attempts at lines…

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Assessment task 1 – draft version

needs polishing and referencing, but if something fails while I do that, here it is for posterity…

Investigate 10 of the 48 supplied inventions/photographers as they relate to their role in the history of photography and the visual communication of ideas.

In each case you need to establish the order of when these inventions/photographers either worked or occurred (earliest first).

You will need to include for each chosen invention/photographer:

  • If a photographer: dates, genre, media, themes, movement, importance of their work and sample images (1-3 images per photographer)
  • Inventions: dates, country, importance, influence (1-2 images)

My selections are:

Daguerrotype

Electronic Flash

Niepce

August Sander

Imogen Cunningham

Payl Strand

Rennie Ellis

Bettina Rheims

iPhone camera (I  choose to interpret this as phone cameras over 5mp)

Andre Kertez.

When I made my choices I did not refer to any websites or other publications, I deliberately left off some names that I was familiar with, in an attempt to learn about those that I was not.  Naturally,  there are some names/inventions that I have had prior knowledge of, it is almost impossible not to, so I chose those because an understanding of them truly interested me.

Among the sources I propose to use in my search are

The internet – while this is an obvious choice, it won’t be my only choice, as there are so many beautifully printed books available.  Using the internet, will, however, enable me to source these publications quickly and easily

Photographer websites/blogs – a subsection of the internet, it’s true, but a dedicated source of how inventions and historical figures in photography have inspired modern photographers

Photography publications – there are many dedicated to photography, and several of these run features, not only on the changes being wrought by technology, but also the changes that came before.

CATC Library – my main source for many of the books on historical figures.  I do hope that the lovely librarian doesn’t get sick of my face.. I may have to bribe her with cookies.

I plan to approach this assignment in a linear way, by finding the earliest invention/photographer and then the latest, and slotting the rest in on the resulting timeline.  Hopefully that will enable me to understand how earlier methods and people influenced those who came later, even those who became historical figures themselves.

Daguerrotype

What is a daguerreotype?

 

The daguerreotype process is one of the earliest photographic processes, invented by the Frenchman Louis Daguerre and announced to the world in August 1839. A daguerreotype consists of a silvered copper plate, which bears the image, and a housing to protect the plate.The image in a daguerreotype is in negative, but it can be viewed as a positive when the reflective surface reflects something dark. The details in a daguerreotype can be very clear and sharp. The image itself consists of higher or lower densities of microscopic silver and mercury particles.

Daguerre could not find private investors for this new technique, so, withholding specifics, he approached the French Acadmy of Sciences in 1839.  Not long after, he gifted the French government with permission to publish the process in return for a lifetime pension.  However, photographers in England had to pay a licence fee, as he patented the process there..

Daguerreotypes were incredibly popular world wide, and many of the early images of historical figures were created with this method, which was also used by the early photojournalists in the American Civil War.  One of the features of  scenes captured with this method, was the lack of people or other moving objects, as the exposure was still quite lengthy and thus they became ‘invisible.

Plate style photographic processes dominated astronomical photography until quite late in the 20th century, although they were boosted by colour filters, due to their crisp contrast and fine detail.

Daguerre died of a heart attack on July 10, 1851, just outside of Paris, but he undeniably left his mark not just on photography, but the world at large. His name is among 72 inscribed on the Eiffel Tower.

Camera obscurae picture sourced from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Daguerreotype

Image of Louis Daguerre and Daguerreotype sourced from http://www.aps.org/publications/apsnews/201301/physicshistory.cfm

Further info  sourced from http://www.daguerreobase.org

Neipce

Niepce was born in Chalon‐sur‐Saône, March 7, 1765,  and for a while he was Administrator of Nice.. but in 1801 he devoted his life to research, with his passions being physics and chemistry, and in  1814, Niépce began experimenting with ways to record light, and managed to transfer an image to paper two years later via a camera obscura.

By 1822, he had figured out how to make such an image permanent by capturing it on a flat sheet of polished tin coated with bitumen. One of the oldest surviving photographs dates back to 1825, when Niépce captured the black-and-white image of an engraving of a boy pulling a horse. But this method required a full eight hours of exposure. His later image of the view from his attic window, another 8 hour exposure, is probably his most famous, and is currently held in the University of Texas.

Niepce collaborated with Daguerre several times on photography related projects, and is also credited, along with his brother of the invention of the internal combustion engine.

Niepce died in his home town, July 5, 1833, quite suddenly.

 

http://www.aps.org/publications/apsnews/201301/physicshistory.cfm

‘Joseph Nicéphore Niepce (1765–1833)’ 2011, Hutchinson’s Biography Database, p. 1, Australia/New Zealand Reference Centre, EBSCOhost, viewed 1 November 2013.

http://www.niepce.com

 

August Sander (17 November 1876 – 20 April 1964

Sander started his photographic journey as an assistant in a studio during his military service, he continued with it after his discharge, and by 1904 had opened his own studio in Linz, Austria.  In 1909, he began photographing rural farmers near his new studio in Cologne, and soon afterwards abandoned studio photography in favour of finding subjects on his travels by bycicle through the countryside. These images were the beginning of Sander’s best known project “Man of the twentieth Century”

Many of these portraits were later banned by the Nazi party because subjects did not conform to the Aryan ideal, and there is a school of thought that says many of these diverse images of coloured people paired with Caucasians was a political statement on the part of the photographer, however, after 1934, he increasingly photographed nature scenes and architecture, before returning to his project after the war, and continuing it well into the 1950’s.

Sander’s portraits are considered strictly documentary, and while not an accurate demographic representation of the makeup of his country, they are considered a highly accurate reflection of their time.

 

http://www.tate.org.uk/research/publications/tate-papers/august-sander-and-artists-locating-subjects-new-objectivity

Michael Collins, Record Pictures (Thomas Telford Publishing, 2004), p. 1842

Read more: http://www.answers.com/topic/august-sander#ixzz2kJQsBetb

http://www.getty.edu/art/gettyguide/artMakerDetails?maker=1786

Tubb, K 2013, ‘Face to Face? An Ethical Encounter with Germany’s Dark Strangers in August Sander’s People of the Twentieth Century’, Tate Papers, 19, p. 4, Art & Architecture Complete, EBSCOhost, viewed 1 November 2013.

 

Imogen Cunningham (April 12, 1883 – June 24, 1976)

Imogen pursued photography with a passion her entire life.  Best known for her modernist images taken pre 1940, she was also a figurehead in several other trends and developments.

With a portfolio that ran the extremes of artistic nudes and studies of local plants, her body of work is considered bold and contemporary.  Many iconic portraits of hollywood’s leading men were taken by Imogen, who went against all the customs of the time by being a working, married mother.

Despite making much use of soft focus early in her career, in 1932, Imogen, along with Ansel Adams, Edward Weston, Willard Van Dyke, and several others founded Group f/64, to photograph in a hard edged style, the real world around them during the great depression.

http://www.artbook.com/9781938922060.html

PUBLISHER
TF EDITORES/D.A.P.

BOOK FORMAT
CLTH, 9.5 X 11.75 IN. / 262 PGS / 220 DUOTONE.

PUBLISHING STATUS
PUB DATE 1/31/2013
ACTIVE

DISTRIBUTION
D.A.P. EXCLUSIVE
CATALOG: SPRING 2013 P. 18

PRODUCT DETAILS
ISBN 9781938922060 TRADE
LIST PRICE: $65.00 CDN $65.00
AVAILABILITY: IN STOCK

http://www.artnet.com/awc/imogen-cunningham.html

References

Meltzer, M 1979, ‘Imogen Cunningham (Book Review)’, Library Journal, 104, 21, p. 2563, Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost, viewed 3 November 2013.

 

http://www.imaging-resource.com/news/2013/08/23/womans-eye-how-photographer-imogen-cunningham-broke-through-gender-barriers

http://www.photoliaison.com/imogen_cunningham/Imogen_Cunningham.htm

 

Paul Strand (October 16, 1890 – March 31, 1976

One of the first of the American Modernist photographers, Paul explored the expressive side of this movement, encouraged by his first teacher, Lewis Hine. He was exhibited and published at quite a young age, not long after returning from WWI, where he served as a member of the medical corps.

Strand also worked as a motion picture cameraman in the 1920’s, and in the great depression he was quite active politically, with quite left wing views. Most of his photography in this period was done on location at various urban sites, photographed with large format 8×10 cameras with contact prints on platinum paper, these images are acknowledge among historians of the art as seminal in the evolution of the New Objectivity, with form and feeling both intense and inseparable from each other.

After time spent curating at museums in Mexico, he travelled to the Soviet Union, and on his return, again began making socially significant films, and went on to form the Photo League in New York in 1936, but after being questioned  and blacklisted by  the committe for un-American activities, he left the United States in 1950 and spent the remainder of his life in France.  He was politically active in his work for most of his life

 

 

http://www.vam.ac.uk/users/node/6656

http://www.masters-of-photography.com/S/strand/strand_articles2.html

http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/USAPstrand.htm

References

‘Paul Strand’ 2013, Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6Th Edition, p. 1, Australia/New Zealand Reference Centre, EBSCOhost, viewed 11 November 2013.

 

 

André Kertész was born on July 2, 1894 in Hungary and died there in 1985

Kertesz had an extensive career covering more than seven decades, he is considered the pioneering father of the street photography genre, along with photojournalism, with even the much more famous Henri Cartier- Bresson acknowledging his impact.

Like many of his contemporaries, his portfolio consisted of two extremes, at one end photo essays commissioned by popular magazines, and at the other end, his street photography, where images were often quite distorted and surreal.  The main body of his work lies somewhere between the modernist essay and the surreal movement.

Kertesz was well known for modifying his equipment, early on in his career, frustrated by the lack of portability of his 8×10 camera, he went to a glass cutter and had the plates cut into quarters, he marvelled that not only did this reduce the size of his camera to less than 6cm square, but also that it gave him 48 exposures for the cost of 12.

http://deiascosta.blogspot.com.au/2011/05/fotografo-andre-kertesz.html

References

Banks, T 2013, ‘André Kertész: Truth and Distortion in photography’, Design Week (Online Edition), p. 1, Business Source Corporate Plus, EBSCOhost, viewed 5 November 2013.

 

http://erickimphotography.com/blog/2013/09/16/10-lessons-andre-kertesz-has-taught-me-about-street-photography/

 

 

 

 

Reynolds Mark “Rennie” Ellis (11 November 1940 – 19 August 2003)

Rennie Ellis was an Australian photographer who was well known on the ‘party scene’ in the 1970’s and 1980’s, capturing the emergence of the Australian party identity.  His subjects were the epitome of popular culture and our hedonistic embrace of it.

His images are raw, gritty and very much capture life in the fast lane of sex, drugs and rock and roll of the time.

Ellis had a background in advertising, and travelled the world as a merchant seaman before becoming a freelance photographer.  His skills were all self taught on that voyage.

He is considered one of the greatest Australian photographers of the 20th century by many of his peers and his images are still shown in exhibitions and held in permanent galleries all over Australia, with permanent collections being held in every major art gallery in the country.

 

http://www.openjournal.com.au/rennie-ellis-decade-1970-1980/

References

Penny, W 2013, ‘Mirror on a societyreinventing itself’, Age, The (Melbourne), 28 August, Australia/New Zealand Reference Centre, EBSCOhost, viewed 5 November 2013.

 

http://selvedgeyard.com/2011/06/23/the-photography-of-rennie-ellis-no-standing-only-dancing/
References

Peta, D 2013, ‘Long-lost manuscript puts lensman in focus’, Sydney Morning Herald, The, 6 September, Australia/New Zealand Reference Centre, EBSCOhost, viewed 9 November 2013.

 

 

 

 

Electronic Flash – 1931

 

Henry Edgerton is credited with the invention of the first electronic flash or strobing light in 1931, among his many other inventions,  Previous to this, flash light was created by the use of ‘flash powder’, an actual explosive blend that consisted of a mix  of magnesium powder, potassium chlorate and antimony sulphide (more commonly known these days as kohl powder and used in eye cosmetics), and most camera companies had a proprietary blend offered for sale.  Obviously this powder was inherently dangerous, messy and unpleasant to use, not only for the photographer, but also for his subjects.

Concurrent with flash powder, a photographer could also choose to use a magnesium flash bulb , which dated back to 1900, but wasn’t patented until 1925, and could only be used 12 times before running out of magnesium ribbon.

Early electronic flashes were quite expensive, and used only by professional photographers because of this, however, invention of the small capless bulb in 1955 made the cost much more accessible to most amateur photographers.  Flash powder and magnesium bulbs persisted well into the 1950’s due to the cost factor.

These factors all combined to ensure that flash guns were all off camera, and connected by a synchronising cord or the now familiar hot shoe adaptor.  However, in 1964, Voigtlander released a camera with an integrated electronic flash unit that used an in body battery, and this popularised flash photography for the masses.

Nowadays, nearly every camera has an inbuilt flash, usually lit by LED, with only professional cameras having electronic  separate flash units that can be used on or off the camera.  Many of these units have variable power output, zoom capabilities, the ability to meter the amount of light needed based on the camera’s meter (through the lens system or TTL) and so much more than anyone imagined when they lit a touchpaper to a pile of flash powder.

 

http://www.hkyongnuo.com/e-detail.php?ID=323

http://photography.tutsplus.com/articles/a-brief-history-of-photographic-flash–photo-4249

Book To photograph darkness  ISBN: 978-0-86299-649-9

http://www.photomemorabilia.co.uk/Ilford/Flash_History.html

http://www.google.com/patents/US2775718

 

 

Bettina Rheims (born December 18, 1952

Rheims is a French born photographer who started her professional life as a model and journalist, converting to full time photography in 1980.  She has a stylised look, capturing mainly fashion and erotic images with a strong leaning towards incredibly beautiful women in both colour and black and white.

Rheims is credited with being a pioneer of the current opulent fashion look, her consciously theatrical images and exploration of androgyny in fashion have become her trademark, as well as an industry standard.

Not satisfied with creating imagery for most of the haute couture fashion houses of her native France, she has also published several books of images taken on trips all around the world, taking images of people that she finds on the street, as opposed to many of the famous supermodels that she has photographed before.

 

 

http://www.interviewmagazine.com/fashion/bettina-rheims-taschen-paging#_

http://sydney.concreteplayground.com.au/event/103995/the-fashion-of-helmut-newton-and-bettina-rheims.htm

http://www.artnet.com/artists/bettina-rheims/

Miller, F 1992, ‘PHOTOGRAPHS BY BETTINA RHEIMS’, Print Collector’s Newsletter, 22, 6, pp. 196-198, Art & Architecture Complete, EBSCOhost, viewed 9 November 2013.

 

 

 

Camera Phone – 2000

Oh gosh.. Camera phones.. love them or hate them, they are pretty much here to stay, and how they have taken over in such a short time is nothing short of a marketing win.

The very first mobile phone with a camera was released in South Korea only by Samsung, and wasn’t integrated into the phone, it merely shared the same body.. it’s resolution was .35 of a megapixel.. that’s right ONE percent of what some pro dslr bodies are capable of today.  Later that year, Sharp released a .11 megapixel camera integrated into its latest body, so that images taken could also be transmitted electronically directly from the phone.

For two whole years, the west resisted this new fad, until, finally, in 2002, Sanyo released a camera phone that not only had .3 megapixel resolution, but also had some editing capabilities, with white balance, zoom and three user controlled tones.  Nokia followed with their own version later the same year, and by the end of 2004, two thirds of all phones sold had integrated cameras, with the average resolution being two megapixels.

Then came the iPhone – 2007, the year we embraced swipe technology.  No more pressing tiny buttons and getting it wrong. A new world opened up, because this phone could be loaded with custom features normally found on a PC, Applets, or Apps, meant that developers could create programs that would bolster the function of the phone camera, allow advanced editing, share immediately over the internet what you had for lunch (who’s brilliant idea was that??  Sarcasm off)

Camera manufacturers started to sit up and take notice, lenses that would work well on these tiny sensors were created, with Nokia partnering with the Carl Zeiss company. LED flashes were added, zoom capabilities, the megapixel count rose and rose, and currently sits at a staggering 41 megapixels in the Lumia.  Video capability, more and more editing apps, direct one click linking to every available social media site (who probably wouldnt’ really exist with the smart phone and it’s camera). Tutorials, books, clubs and groups, dedicated purely to the art of phone photography. Where will it end??

 

 

http://www.dallasces.org/talks/IEEEConsumerElectMtg-Dallas-Oct2008.pdf

http://www.cbc.ca/news/technology/5-major-moments-in-cellphone-history-1.1407352

http://www.digitaltrends.com/mobile/camera-phone-history/

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Assessment task 1 – Process Diary

Investigate 10 of the 48 supplied inventions/photographers as they relate to their role in the history of photography and the visual communication of ideas.

In each case you need to establish the order of when these inventions/photographers either worked or occurred (earliest first).

You wll need to include for each chosen invention/photographer:

  • If a photographer: dates, genre, media, themes, movement, importance of their owrk and sample images (1-3 images per photographer)
  • Inventions: dates, country, importance, influence (1-2 images)

My selections are:

Daguerrotype

Electronic Flash

Niepce

August Sander

Imogen Cunningham

Paul Strand

Rennie Ellis

Bettina Rheims

iPhone camera (I  choose to interpret this as phone cameras over 5mp)

Andre Kertez.

When I made my choices I did not refer to any websites or other publications, I deliberately left off some names that I was familiar with, in an attempt to learn about those that I was not.  Naturally,  there are some names/inventions that I have had prior knowledge of, it is almost impossible not to, so I chose those because an understanding of them truly interested me.

Among the sources I propose to use in my search are

The internet – while this is an obvious choice, it won’t be my only choice, as there are so many beautifully printed books available.  Using the internet, will, however, enable me to source these publications quickly and easily

Photographer websites/blogs – a subsection of the internet true, but a dedicated source of how inventions and historical figures in photography have inspired modern photographers

Photography magazines – there are many magazines dedicated to photography, and several of these run features, not only on the changes being wrought by technology, but also the changes that came before.

CATC Library – my main source for many of the books on historical figures.  I do hope that the lovely librarian doesn’t get sick of my face.. I may have to bribe her with cookies.

I plan to approach this assignment in a linear way, by finding the earliest invention/photographer and then the latest, and slotting the rest in on the resulting timeline.  Hopefully that will enable me to understand how earlier methods and people influenced those who came later, even those who became historical figures themselves.

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